Primary research articles


Guidelines (*)  for primary research articles:

  • Title should be  as much as possible short, clear, specific, not ambiguous and must reflect the content of the article.
  • List of authors is composed by all people who contributed substantially to conception, fulfillment, interpretation of data, critical writing and final approbation of the whole work. The authors are listed with full name, qualification, affiliation  (during the study) and e-mail addresses for correspondence.
  • Abstract briefly explain why you conducted the study (BACKGROUND), what question(s) you aimed to answer (OBJECTIVES), how you performed the study (METHODS), what you found (RESULTS) and your interpretation and main consequences of your findings (DISCUSSION).
  • Introduction explain why the study was needed and specify your research objectives or the question(s) you aimed to answer. 
  • Material and Methods describe in detail how the study was carried out (e.g. study area, data collection, criteria,
    origin of analysed material, sample size, number of
    measurements, guidelines followed, description of participants group, data analysis, statistical tests, and software used)
  • Results present the new outcomes of your study (possibly with tables and figures mentioned in the section).
  • Discussion answer the research question(s) (stated at the end of the introduction) and compare your new results with published data, as objectively as possible. Discuss their limitations and highlight your main findings and possibly future in-depth analysis needed.
  • Acknowledgements mention all people who contributed substantially to the study but cannot be regarded as co-authors (also acknowledge all sources of funding).
  • Make sure that you have provided sources for all information extracted from other publications.  In the list of references, include all data necessary to find them in a library or in the Internet (like recommend National Library of Medicine).
  • Content do not include information that is not relevant to your research question(s) stated in the introduction.
  • Clearly distinguish your original data and ideas from those of other people and from your earlier


  • Text structure should be with sentences generally not very long. Their structure should be relatively simple. In general the text should be cohesive, logically organized, and thus easy to follow.
  • Define abbreviations when they first appear in the main

    body of the article.

  • A proper  Italian or English scientific language is needed in all the text.

* Guidelines are provided  from EASE Guidelines for Authors and Translators of Scientific Articles to Be Published in English, June 2013, by European Association of Science Editors (EASE).

Other points of reference:

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE):  Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals.

World Medical Association (WMA):  ”Declaration of Helsinki“.

Guidelines provided by EQUATOR Network  (Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of Health Research).



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